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英語語法大全--虛擬語氣
虛擬語氣


1) 概念
   虛擬語氣用來表示說話人的主觀愿望或假想,所說的是一個條件,不一定是事實,或與事實相反。

2) 在條件句中的應用
   條件句可分為兩類,一類為真實條件句,一類為非真實條件句。非真實條件句表示的是假設的或實際可能性不大的情況,故采用虛擬語氣。

16.1 真實條件句


  真實條件句用于陳述語氣,假設的情況可能發生,其中 if 是如果的意思。
 
  時態關系
句型: 條件從句    主句
   一般現在時   shall/will + 動詞原形
 If he comes, he will bring his violin.

典型例題
 The volleyball match will be put off if it ___. 
A. will rain  B. rains  C. rained  D. is rained
 答案B。真實條件句主句為將來時,從句用一般現在時。

注意:
1) 在真實條件句中,主句不能用be going to表示將來,該用shall, will.
 (錯) If you leave now, you are never going to regret it.
 (對) If you leave now, you will never regret it.
 2) 表示真理時,主句謂語動詞便不用shall (will) +動詞原形,而直接用一般現在時的動詞形式。

16.2 非真實條件句


1)時態:可以表示過去,現在和將來的情況。它的基本特點是時態退后。
a.  同現在事實相反的假設。
句型 : 條件從句     主句
    一般過去時   should( would) +動詞原形
  If they were here, they would help you.

b.  表示于過去事實相反的假設。
句型: 條件從句      主句     
   過去完成時    should(would) have+ 過去分詞
  If she had worked harder, she would have succeeded.  
  The rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful. 
  If my lawyer had been here last Saturday, he would have prevented me from going.


  If he had come yesterday, I should / would have told him about it.
  含義:He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it.
  If he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress.
  含義: He was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress. 

c.  表示對將來的假想
 句型:  條件從句       主句
     一般過去時      should+ 動詞原形
     were+ 不定式     would + 動詞原形
     should+ 動詞原形
 If you succeeded, everything would be all right.
 If you should succeed, everything would be all right.
 If you were to succeed, everything would be all right.
 
16.3 混合條件句


  主句與從句的動作發生在不同的時間,這時主,從句謂語動詞的虛擬語氣形式因時間不同而不同,這叫做混合條件句。
  If you had asked him yesterday, you would k now what to do now.
  (從句與過去事實相反,主句與現在事實相反。)
  If it had rained last night (過去), it would be very cold today (現在).

 If he were here, everything would be all right.
   如果他在這兒,一切都會好的。

典型例題
 _____ to do the work, I should do it some other day.
A. If were I   B. I were C. Were I D. Was I
  答案C. 在虛擬條件狀語中如果有were, should, had這三個詞,通常將if省略,主語提前, 變成 were, should, had +主語的形式。但要注意,在虛擬條件狀語從句中,省略連詞的倒裝形式的句首不能用動詞的縮略形式。如我們可說 Were I not to do., 而不能說 Weren't I to do.(had + 過去分詞)                  
將來不大可能實現的愿望   將來時 would/could +
                   動詞原形    

 I wish I were as tall as you. 我希望和你一樣高。
 He wished he hadn't said that. 他希望他沒講那樣的話。
 I wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。

2)Wish to do表達法。
  Wish sb / sth to do
  I wish to see the manager. = I want to see the manager.
  I wish the manager to be informed at once. (= I want the manager to be informed at once.)

16.7 比較if only與only if



  only if表示"只有";if only則表示"如果……就好了"。If only也可用于陳述語氣。
  I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有鬧鐘響了,我才會醒。
  If only the alarm clock had rung.   當時鬧鐘響了,就好了。
  If only he comes early.       但愿他早點回來。

16.8 It is (high) time that


  It is (high) time that 后面的從句謂語動詞要用過去式或用should加動詞原形,但should不可省略。
  It is time that the children went to bed.
  It is high time that the children should go to bed.
1)用于wish后面的從句,表示與事實相反的情況,或表示將來不太可能實現的愿望。其賓語從句的動詞形式為:

              真實狀況 wish后      
從句動作先于主句動詞動作  現在時  過去時
(be的過去式為 were)                 
從句動作與主句動作同時發生 過去時  過去完成時
(had + 過去分詞)                  
將來不大可能實現的愿望   將來時 would/could +
                   動詞原形    

 I wish I were as tall as you. 我希望和你一樣高。
 He wished he hadn't said that. 他希望他沒講那樣的話。
 I wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。

2)Wish to do表達法。
  Wish sb / sth to do
  I wish to see the manager. = I want to see the manager.
  I wish the manager to be informed at once. (= I want the manager to be informed at once.)

16.7 比較if only與only if


  only if表示"只有";if only則表示"如果……就好了"。If only也可用于陳述語氣。
  I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有鬧鐘響了,我才會醒。
  If only the alarm clock had rung.   當時鬧鐘響了,就好了。
  If only he comes early.       但愿他早點回來。

16.8 It is (high) time that


  It is (high) time that 后面的從句謂語動詞要用過去式或用should加動詞原形,但should不可省略。
  It is time that the children went to bed.
  It is high time that the children should go to bed.



16.5 特殊的虛擬語氣詞:should



1) It is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…結構中的主語從句的謂語動詞要用should 加動詞原形, should 可省略。

句型:
    (1)suggested
It is  (2)important    that…+ (should) do
    (3) a pity

(1)suggested, ordered, proposed, required,  demanded, requested, insisted; + (should) do
(2)important, necessary, natural, strange
a pity,  a shame,  no wonder
(3)It is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week.


  It is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow.

2)在賓語從句中的應用
  在表示命令、建議、要求等一類動詞后面的從句中。
order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do
  I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
  He insisted that he (should ) be sent there.


 注意: 如suggest, insist不表示"建議" 或"堅持要某人做某事時",即它們用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"堅持認為"時,賓語從句用陳述語氣。
  The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules. 

 判斷改錯:
 (錯) You p ale face suggests that you (should) be ill.
  (對)  Your pale face suggests that you are ill.
  (錯)  I insisted that you ( should) be wrong.
  (對)  I insisted that you were wrong.

3)在表語從句,同位語從句中的應用
  在suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice等名詞后面的表語從句、同位語從句中要用虛擬語氣,即(should)+動詞原形。
   My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.
   I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

16.6 wish的用法


1)用于wish后面的從句,表示與事實相反的情況,或表示將來不太可能實現的愿望。其賓語從句的動詞形式為:

              真實狀況 wish后      
從句動作先于主句動詞動作  現在時  過去時
(be的過去式為 were)                 
從句動作與主句動作同時發生 過去時  過去完成時
(had + 過去分詞)                  
將來不大可能實現的愿望   將來時 would/could +
                   動詞原形    

 I wish I were as tall as you. 我希望和你一樣高。
 He wished he hadn't said that. 他希望他沒講那樣的話。
 I wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。

2)Wish to do表達法。
  Wish sb / sth to do
  I wish to see the manager. = I want to see the manager.
  I wish the manager to be informed at once. (= I want the manager to be informed at once.)

16.7 比較if only與only if


  only if表示"只有";if only則表示"如果……就好了"。If only也可用于陳述語氣。
  I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有鬧鐘響了,我才會醒。
  If only the alarm clock had rung.   當時鬧鐘響了,就好了。
  If only he comes early.       但愿他早點回來。

16.4 虛擬條件句的倒裝

 


  虛擬條件句的從句部分如果含有were, should, 或had, 可將if省略,再把were, should或had 移到從句句首,實行倒裝。
  Were they here now, they could help us.
 =If they were here now, they could help us.
  Had you come earlier, you would have met him
 =If you had come earlier, you would have met him. 
  Should it rain, the crops would be saved.
 =Were it to rain, the crops would be saved.

注意:
  在虛擬語氣的從句中,動詞'be'的過去時態一律用"were",不用was, 即在從句中be用were代替。
  If I were you, I would go to look for him.
   如果16.8 It is (high) time that



  It is (high) time that 后面的從句謂語動詞要用過去式或用should加動詞原形,但should不可省略。
  It is time that the children went to bed.
  It is high time that the children should go to bed.

虛擬條件句的從句部分如果含有were, should, 或had, 可將if省略,再把were, should或had 移到從句句首,實行倒裝。
  Were they here now, they could help us.
 =If they were here now, they could help us.
  Had you come earlier, you would have met him
 =If you had come earlier, you would have met him. 
  Should it rain, the crops would be saved.
 =Were it to rain, the crops would be saved.

注意:
  在虛擬語氣的從句中,動詞'be'的過去時態一律用"were",不用was, 即在從句中be用were代替。
  If I were you, I would go to look for him.
   如果我是你,就會去找他。
  If he were here, everything would be all right.
   如果他在這兒,一切都會好的。

典型例題
 _____ to do the work, I should do it some other day.
A. If were I   B. I were C. Were I D. Was I
  答案C. 在虛擬條件狀語中如果有were, should, had這三個詞,通常將if省略,主語提前, 變成 were, should, had +主語的形式。但要注意,在虛擬條件狀語從句中,省略連詞的倒裝形式的句首不能用動詞的縮略形式。如我們可說 Were I not to do., 而不能說 Weren't I to do.

16.5 特殊的虛擬語氣詞:should


1) It is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…結構中的主語從句的謂語動詞要用should 加動詞原形, should 可省略。

句型:
    (1)suggested
It is  (2)important    that…+ (should) do
    (3) a pity

(1)suggested, ordered, proposed, required,  demanded, requested, insisted; + (should) do
(2)important, necessary, natural, strange
a pity,  a shame,  no wonder
(3)It is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week.


  It is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow.

2)在賓語從句中的應用
  在表示命令、建議、要求等一類動詞后面的從句中。
order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do
  I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
  He insisted that he (should ) be sent there.


 注意: 如suggest, insist不表示"建議" 或"堅持要某人做某事時",即它們用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"堅持認為"時,賓語從句用陳述語氣。
  The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules. 

 判斷改錯:
 (錯) You p ale face suggests that you (should) be ill.
  (對)  Your pale face suggests that you are ill.
  (錯)  I insisted that you ( should) be wrong.
  (對)  I insisted that you were wrong.

3)在表語從句,同位語從句中的應用
  在suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice等名詞后面的表語從句、同位語從句中要用虛擬語氣,即(should)+動詞原形。
   My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.
   I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

16.6 wish的用法


1)用于wish后面的從句,表示與事實相反的情況,或表示將來不太可能實現的愿望。其賓語從句的動詞形式為:

              真實狀況 wish后      
從句動作先于主句動詞動作  現在時  過去時
(be的過去式為 were)                 
從句動作與主句動作同時發生 過去時  過去完成時

我是你,就會去找他。

 

 

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